Mosquito-ailments are sicknesses due to bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted with the aid of mosquitoes. Nearly 700 million people get a mosquito-borne disease each year resulting in over a million deaths.Diseases caused by means of mosquitoes are dengue, malaria yellow fever, Barmah forest fever, Zika Fever, filariasis, Ross river fever, West Nile virus etc.Numerous mosquito repellents and insect repellents are being used to govern mosquito menace. Regrettablymajority of them are fullof chemicals which may be dangerous to human health. This is true of any insect repulsive, everywhere within the world(Fradin, M. S. 1998).
Because of those facts, human beings are in search of herbal approaches to avoid mosquitoes. Indigenous knowledge and practices of nativeinhabitants demonstrated the extensive information available surrounding local flowers with such capability usages. Commonly, those flowers are used by bruising newlychosensprays that are then hung inside houses orburned outside atthe evening fire.Such strategies are extensively used but unethically brushed off or ignored( Davis, E. E. 1985).Natural flora have also been used within the form of crude fumigants where vegetation areburned to force away arthropods who sucks the blood or as significant oilpreparations carried out frequently onto the pores and skin or clothes. The number ofindigious plant species have in the focus of repellent work and were proved to be significantagainst various species of mosquitos as well as other arthropods which were medically important (Tawatsin, A. 2001).
The arease with high density of botanical based insec repellent are in the southeast Asia andtropical Asia.It was estimated that there were 2300 plant species as having strong mosquito-resistive properties through the south AsiaVongsombath C. (Obico, J.J.A. et al., 2006). Chemicals from these botanical flora exhibit a number of various behaviourial adapting properties, consisting of repellents, attractants, feeding, toxins, deterrents insect increase regulators and hormones.( Isman, M.B. 2006)
The lactic acid and the CO2 present in the sweet of human being causes the mosquitos to be attracted. The chemoreceptors present in tha antenna of mosquitos senses the stimuli of smell. The natural mosquito-repellent plays significant role in masking the human scent. Due to rising mosquito-borne diseases it became necessary to control mosquitoes in present day situation. (Boer,D.H. 2010).Afrightening growth mosquitoes is largely due to cutting down of forests, stagnant-water and industrialized farming. Hence, for combating mosquitos special products such as insect repellents are required. In many research papers and in assessment papers a number of natural mosquito resistant herbs were studied and reported Botanical repellents and pesticides traditionally used against hematophagous invertebrates in Lao People’s Democratic Republic. (Maia, M.F. et al., 2011)
Seven plants having strong potential to prevent mosquitos
There are following seven plant to be discussed that are proved to be very effective in prevention of mosquitos and consequently from mosquito-borne diseases
1.Horsemint(aka Beebalm) Monarda spp
Like citronella the horsemint which is an adaptable perennial plant also helps to prevent the mosquitos. It produces a strong smell which makes the mosquito confused by masking the usual scent of its host. Horsemint has fast growth rate it is also tolerant to shades and resistant to the drought. It can reach to 2-3 feet in height and width(Maia MF et al., 2011).
2.Marigolds (Tagetes spp.)
It is an ornamental plant and is specifically grown as decorative purposes as border plant. Mrigolds and hardy plant possess unique fragrance that is disliked by the insects like mosquitos as well as gardeners also find it offensive. Marigold has a chemical named as pyrethrum, which is a chemical that is used in manufacturing of many insect repellents. The potted-mrigolds can be placed at the entrance of the homes or at any point from where mosquitos can enter for example near open windows. The smell of the plant will prevent the mosquitos cross the barrier (Hajra, A. et al., 2016).
3.Garlic (Allium sativum)
Although garlic is used in cooking purposes very few people know that garlic is also a natural mosquito repellent. Yet it is not discovered that why it acts as repellent. However, it is said that it is the strong smell of garlic that helps in keeping the mosquitos away.The garlic bulbs are specifically used in the insect repellents(Stjernberg, L. et al., 2000).
4.Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon nardus)
In manufacturingthe mosquitos-resistant cream or liquids the most frequently used ingredient is Citronella. The unique smell of Citronella makes it more effective in masking the all other aromas that attracts the mosquitos which makes difficult for mosquitos to find the person.it is a perinnial herb and can grow upto the height of 5-6 feet known as climping grass.( Nakahara, K. et al., 2013)
5.Ageratum (Ageratum spp.)
Also called as floss flowers possess a scent that is very offensive for the insects like mosquitos. Ageratum releases a chemical, Coumarin which is extensively used as raw material in insect repellents. It is an annual-ornamental plant which can attain the height of 8 to 18”feet and it is easily identified by its beautiful blue-coloured flowers. It also has variety of colours in flowers like pink, violet and white.the leaves of the Ageratum can be chopped to enhance the odour, it cannot be used directly by rubbing the crushed leaves onto the skin surface(Tennyson, S. et al., 2012).
6.Catnip Nepeta cateria
Another natural mosquito- repellent is Catnip. An entomologist reported to the America in August 2010 at lowa State University that the catnip is more effect in prevention of the mosquito infection than DEET, which is chemical present in insect repellents that were mostly used. Catnip which is easy to grow is a perennial herb that resembles mint and rapidly grows as commercially harvested plant as well as weed in most areas of America.This perennial herb is related to mint and grows readily both as a weed and a commercially cultivated plant in most regions of the US (Zhu, J. J. et al., 2009).
7.Pineapple weed (Matricaria matricarioides)
Pineapple Weed is a not unusual weedy species which grows throughout North America. It may befound growing in edges of roads, lawns and different disturbed areas. The crushed aromatic plants can be applied to the skin to assist prevent mosquitoes.Pennyroyal Hedeoma pulegioides Pennyroyal assists to prevent mosquitoes, midges and also fleas and ticks! Pennyroyal is regularly used in manufacturing of commercially important natural insect repellent sprays and creams. It is great to grow the Pennyroyal in garden, however it is best used as a topical repellent of insects used on to the skin. If Pennoryl leaves are crushed and rubbed onto the skin, this proves to be effective in mosquito born infections. Along with leaves, stem of this plant can also be used by putting them into the pockets and luggage as well which can prevent the insects to cause infection (Cantrell, C. L. et al., 2018).